Protective Factors for Sexual Violence: Understanding How Trajectories Relate to Perpetration in High School | Prevention Science
Kathleen C. Basile1 & Whitney L. Rostad1 & Ruth W. Leemis1 & Dorothy L. Espelage2 & Jordan P. Davis3
Adolescent sexual violence (SV) perpetration is a significant public health problem. Many risk factors for perpetration are known, but less is known about what protects youth from perpetration, or how protective factors change over time. This longitudinal study reports trajectories of four potential protective factors for SV perpetration (empathy, parental monitoring, social support, and school belonging) across middle and high school and examines their relationship to SV perpetration in high school. Findings reveal that youth who identified as SV perpetrators had significantly lower mean empathy scores (d = − 0.18, 95%CI [−0.26,−0.10]) and social support scores (d = − 0.05, 95%CI [−0.14, −0.03]) at the beginning of middle school than non-perpetrators.
We also found that youth who identified as SV perpetrators had a quicker deceleration in parental monitoring (slopes) and empathy from middle to high school, compared to non-perpetrators. Within-sex differences emerged; significant differences in slopes were detected for school belonging between male perpetrators and male non-perpetrators (Wald test = 3.76 (1), p = .05) and between female perpetrators and female non-perpetrators (Wald test = 3.95(1), p = .04). Significant differences in slopes for empathy between female perpetrators and female non-perpetrators (Wald test = 4.76(1), p = .03) were also detected. No differences were found between male and female SV perpetrators for either empathy or school belonging. These findings have implications for the content and timing of adolescent SV prevention efforts. Intervention in adolescence, involving parents and schools in a comprehensive, multi-level approach, may be effective in preventing SV perpetration.
Substance use outcomes for mindfulness based relapse prevention are partially mediated by reductions in stress: Results from a randomized trial | Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Jordan P. Davisa,⁎, Daniel Berryb, Tara M. Dumasc, Ellen Ritterd, Douglas C. Smithe, Christopher Menardf, Brent W. Robertsg
Mindfulness based relapse prevention (MBRP) has demonstrated efficacy in alleviating substance use,
stress, and craving but how MBRP works for marginalized young adults has not been investigated. The current study used a novel rolling group format for MBRP as an additional intervention for young adults in residential treatment. We tested the hypothesis that MBRP (plus Treatment as usual (TAU)) would reduce stress, craving, and substance use among young adults in residential treatment relative to treatment-as-usual plus 12-step/selfhelp meetings (TAU only). Further, we examined whether reduced stress during treatment was a potential mechanism of change operating in MBRP.
Method: Seventy-nine young adults (Mage=25.3,SD=2.7;35%female) were randomly assigned to MBRP (n=44) or TAU (n=35). Follow-up assessments were conducted bi-monthly for self-reported measures of stress, craving, and substance use.
Results: At treatment completion young adults receiving MBRP had lower substance use (d=−0.58, [−0.91,
−0.26]), craving (d=−0.58, [−1.0, −0.14]), and stress (d=−0.77 [−1.2, −0.30]) relative to TAU condition.
Reduced stress during treatment partially mediated observed outcome differences between MBRP and
TAU for substance use (βindirect=−0.45 [−0.79, −0.11]).
Conclusions: Results suggest that MBRP is a useful and appropriate intervention for marginalized young adults.
Further, our results suggest that the effects of MBRP on long-term substance use outcomes may be partially
explained by reduced stress.
Early childhood adversity and emerging adult development | Emerging Adulthood
Davis, J.P., Dumas, T.M., & Roberts, R.W.
Effect of victimization on binge drinking and impulse control among serious juvenile offenders from adolescence through young adulthood | Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Davis, J.P., Dumas, T.M., Berey, B., Cimpinian-Robinson, J., Merrin, G.J., & Roberts, B.W.
Substance Use Prevention and Treatment Outcomes for Emerging Adults in Non-College Settings: A Meta-analysis | Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Dumas, T.D., Maxwell-Smith, M., Davis, J.P., & Giulietti, P.A.
Lying or longing for likes? Narcissism, peer belonging, loneliness and normative versus deceptive like-seeking behavior on Instagram in emerging adulthood | Computers and Human Behavior
Dumas, T.D., Maxwell-Smith, M., Davis, J.P., & Giulietti, P.A.
A longitudinal examination of homophobic name-calling perpetration in middle school: bullying, traditional masculinity, and sexual harassment as predictors | Psychology of Violence
Espelage, D.L., Hong, J.S., Merrin, G.J., Davis, J.P., Rose, C.A., Little, T.D.
A longitudinal analysis of adolescent popularity motivations as a predictor of engagement in relational aggression and risk behaviors | Youth and Society
Dumas, T.M., Davis, J.P., & Ellis, W.E.
How to change conscientiousness: The sociogenomic trait intervention model | Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment.
Roberts, B.W., Hill, P., & Davis, J.P.
Predictive validity of a single item motivational measure for remerging adults in substance use disorder treatment | Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Smith, D.C., Davis, J.P., Mendoza, N., & Shang, S.
Testing a matching hypothesis for emerging adults in Project MATCH: During-treatment and 1-year outcomes | Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 78(1), 140-145
Davis, J.P., Bergman, B.B., Smith, D.C., & Kelly, J.
Social ecological determinants of substance use treatment entry among serious juvenile offenders | Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 71, 8-15.
Davis, J.P., Merrin, G.J., Dumas, T.M., & Berry, D, Wagner, E.F.
Young adulthood is the crucible of personality development | Emerging Adulthood
Roberts, B.W., & Davis, J.P.
Informed assent recall errors among adolescents in substance use treatment outcome research | Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 1-11.
Davis, J.P., Smith, D.C., Cleeland, L.R., & Lux, E.
The longitudinal associations between substance use, crime, and social risk among emerging adults: A longitudinal within and between-person latent variables analysis | Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 165(1), 71-78.
Merrin, G.J., Davis, J.P., Berry, D., D’Amico L.J, & Dumas, T.M.
Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes | Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 65, 66-73.
Davis, J.P., Houck, J.M., Rowell, N., Benson, J., & Smith, D.C.
Six month outcomes of a peer-enhanced community reinforcement approach for emerging adults with substance misuse: A preliminary study | Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 61, 66-73.
Smith, D.C., Davis, J.P., & Dumas, T.M.
Cannabis withdrawal, post treatment abstinence, and days to first cannabis use among emerging adults in substance use treatment | Journal of Drug Issues, 46(1), 64-83.
Davis, J.P., Smith D.C., Morphew, J.W., Lei, X., & Zhang, S.
Examining within-person and between-person effects of victimization and social risk on cannabis use among emerging adults in substance use treatment | Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30, 52-63.
Davis, J.P., Merriam, J., Berry, D., Dumas, T., Hong, J.S., & Smith, D.C.
[Review of the book The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma] | Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions 15(1), 131-133.
Davis, J.P., & Smith D.C.
Normative feedback and adolescent readiness to change: A small randomized trial | Research on Social Work Practice, 25(7), 801-814.
Smith, D.C., Davis, J.P., Ureche, D., & Tabb, K.M.
Racial Matching and Adolescent Self-Disclosure of Substance Use and Mental Health Symptoms | Ethnicity and Substance Use, 1-13.
Ureche, D., Smith, D.C., Davis, J.P., & Tabb, K.
Self-perceived emerging adult status and substance use | Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(3), 935.
Smith, D.C., Cleeland, L.R., Sensoy, Bahar, O., & Davis, J.P.
Motivational interviewing with and without normative-feedback for adolescents with substance use problems: A preliminary study | A preliminary study. Substance Abuse, 36(3), 350-358.
Smith D.C., Ureche, D., Davis, J.P., & Walters, S.T.
A conceptual framework for understanding the association between school bullying victimization and substance misuse. | The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84 (6) 696-710.
Hong, J.S., Davis, J.P., Sterzing, P.R., Yoon, J., Choi, S., & Smith, D.C.,